Does the Emperor Have no Clothes? Enforcement of International Laws Protecting the Marine Environment

This article examines existing structures and mechanisms for the enforcement of international environmental laws, particularly international laws that must confront violations on the high seas in order to protect marine organisms. Although the tenor of the present analysis is general, many of the most influential international marine agreements to date are highlighted, including the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, the Convention on Future Multilateral Co-Operation in the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries, and the United Nations Agreement on the Conservation and Management of Straddling Fish Stock and Highly Migratory Fish Stock.